If I say in today’s world almost everyone is using a domain name then it is not wrong? We all are using domain names to search websites. As it is difficult for a human being to remember a string of numbers, in contrast, we can remember the names easily and hence domain names are an important factor in the world of the internet.
This domain name is then converted into an IP address and your desired page is displayed on the screen. This process is known as DNS(Domain name system).
The fundamental units of a domain naming system are DNS records. They provide you with the option of pointing a domain to a website, an email address, or another online resource.
The Domain name system records-DNS records are the records you hoard in the domain’s database(servers). These records specify how and what can be accessed from your website as well as how it is hosted. They instruct the internet on how to access and use your website.
You will learn about DNS records in this guide, including what they are, their importance and their types.
So let’s explore the guide!
What is a DNS record?
- DNS records are useful in pointing a domain to a website, different pages on the internet, or an email address.
- It is a database record that is used to record(map) a URL to an IP address.
- The DNS records are stored in the DNS databases and allow the users to connect to their destined page on the internet.
- When you enter the URL in your browser, this URL is passed to the DNS servers and then directed to the particular Web server.
- The requested website specified in the URL is subsequently served by this Web server, or the user is instead forwarded to an email server that handles incoming mail.
- DNS records are arranged into zones. Zones, which resemble one or more domains under your control, are how DNS entries are ordered. If you hold the domain names test.com and exam.com, each will have its own unique DNS record set.
Importance of DNS record
- Corporations can redirect DNS requests or block unwanted or unknown domains. To avoid users visiting unsafe sites.
- You can keep track of security issues with DNS records.
- If the site is hacked it allows users to stay away from it.
- The DNS security layer provides additional protection between users and the internet.
- Using a DNS record, multiple websites seamlessly can be accessed from the same web server.
Now, let us find its types.
Some of the important types are discussed below:
- . CNAME (Canonical) Record
A Canonical Name or CNAME record is a type of DNS record that records an alias name to a true or canonical domain name.For instance, if you have a website at www.test.com, you can set up an alias using a CNAME record so that when someone types www.test.com/kb, they are directed to kb.test.com rather than the parent domain itself (www.test.com)..CNAME record is also used for redirection.
Users have the option to point their domain www.test.net to the server www.test.com by setting up a CNAME record for www.test.net.IN CNAME www.test.com
- A record-
The most classic type of DNS record is the A record. An A record links a domain name to the actual IP address of the machine that hosts it. The A record directs internet traffic to the machine that manages the DNS settings for your domain. Multiple A records can be set up for a single domain name, and an A record’s value is always an IP address.The most common use of a record is for IP address lookups. An A record is used by a web browser to load a webpage using the domain name. As a result, even if we don’t know a website’s IP address, we can still access it via the Internet.
Spam mails are blocked using the A record.
The IP address of your domain is an A record. The domain name is resolved to the host server using it. As a result, each time someone visits the domain, the browser can retrieve the database and show the content of your website.
It includes the subdomain value, the domain, the target IP address, the record type, and the TTL (Time to Live) value, which indicates how long changes to the record should take effect.
- Communal TXT records:
- DMARC Record-
One of the greatest ways to safeguard your brand from spoofing is to use the DMARC email authentication standard. You may stop attackers from sending phishing emails to your employees and prospective clients on your behalf by adding a DMARC TXT record to your domain’s DNS settings.You can instruct mail recipients on what to do with messages that fail authentication using DMARC.
Business email compromise, phishing scams, and other cyber dangers including email security and domain abuse can be reduced by enforcing a DMARC policy.
- SPF TXT Record-
SPF, or Sender Policy Framework, is the acronym. It serves as a safeguard against the improper use of your domain name in emails.It is a text file that you can generate to stop your emails from being flagged as spam, which might occur if someone sends emails using your domain name without your permission. You’ll need administrator access to your domain’s DNS settings to put up an SPF TXT record.
An SPF record-generating tool can be used to generate this record.
- DKIM Record-
DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail) checks that an email message’s contents weren’t changed during transmission to help assure its authenticity. It works well in cases involving mail forwarding and email interception.
- SOA Record
All domains utilise the Start of Authority records to identify their principal name server, which serves as the authoritative repository for zone-related data and is in charge of managing the domain as a whole. This provides the email address and the way to get in touch with the webmaster.
- SRV Record
To provide a certain service in the network, a server’s hostname and location are specified in a service record.
- DMARC Record-
- Nameserver (NS) Record
A domain name’s nameservers are listed in this record. It must be correctly configured before adding any additional entries for that domain because it is added to the zone file when you add a new domain to your account.They are a crucial component of almost any domain name system (DNS) configuration since they inform other users of the internet of the nameservers you are using to resolve domain names. NS records serve as an authoritative source for DNS information, assisting users in navigating the web.
The following is an example of a nameserver (NS) record:
test.com NS ns1.test.com
- Mail exchange (MX) Record-
The mail servers in charge of receiving emails sent to a domain name are listed in an MX record. This type of record, which points to an A record or AAAA record that identifies one or more IP addresses where your mail server(s) are hosted, is necessary if you want to receive email through your domain.An illustration of a mail exchange (MX) record for Google’s mail servers is as follows:
IN MX 10 aspmx.l.google.com.
- AAAA Record-
The AAAA records of the IPv6 protocol are used to assign IPv6 addresses to hosts on the Internet. You can use them to assign IPv6 addresses to computers or devices or to assign IPv6 addresses to hostnames.Network administrators can use them for assigning custom IPv6 addresses to their devices without having to deal with long strings of numbers like 2001:db8:0:0:0:16d9:a5b3 or 2001:db8:8c3f::17e9/128.
AAAA records are similar to A records, except that they store IPv6 addresses rather than IPv4. IPv6-enabled websites also need it.
AAAA records point to IPv6 addresses like-
- TXT Record
It is a kind of DNS record that allows you to comprise more text-based domain-related data. Usually, they are applied to email security and authentication procedures.The TXT record serves as a guide for the receiving server on how to verify the source data from the mail servers. The SPF TXT record is the main tool used by mail servers to verify an email’s validity, especially for SPF authentication.
Example of a TXT record (“v=spf1 include:_spf.google.com ~all”)
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